Peaches originated in China and it is thought that the history of peach cultivation dates back to 2000 BC. To Central Asia and Persia (now Iran), peach was brought centuries BC. Later it came to Ancient Greece (up to IV century BC), Italy (I century AD), and then to France. Initially, the Romans called it a Persian apple , this is where the name peach came from. In 1565-1571 GG Spaniards brought peach to Florida and Mexico.
Peach proved to be a benefitial plant for breeders. To date there has been created about 5 thousand varieties of this fruit. The main industrial area is located between 45 ° N and 30 ° S.
Some researchers think that it comes from China. Frank Mair who lived in China for over 12 years claims to have found wild peach in Shensi province, in Gansu and on the border with Tibet, by the way the fruits were hardly eatable.
A peach tree has lanceolate, broad, pennately veined leaves. Pink flowers flowers appearing before the leaves development in early spring. The fruit is ball-shaped, with velvety or smooth skin in different cultivars. The stone is wrinkled and furrowed with point dimples.
The genus includes six species of peach. Of these, the most important is peach ordinary, widely spread in the south of Russia, and peach Ferghana, cultivated in Central Asia. Peach cultivars originate from peach usual, which does not exist (unknown) in wild form. Peach cultivars are mostly small trees (size - from 2.5 to 3.5 m) and sometimes a sprawling bush.
In the Central Black Earth band winter-hardy forms of peach are grown. As a result of repeated seed replanting of winter-hardy forms more of winter-hardy forms are created, which in turn give high yields of fruit high quality taste and form.
There are different varieties of peach: with downy fruit and freestones is the peach; with clingstones and downy fruit is Pavia; with freestone and not downy fruit is nectarine and with clingstone and not downy fruit is Breugnon. A special group of varieties comprise donut peaches presented by Chinese cultivars. There are such varieties of peach fruit as table, dried fruit, tin, multi-purpose.
Peach fruits contain up to 15% of sugars. They contain such chemical elements as sucrose and glucose, fructose. They contain a small amount of organic acids (malic, tartaric, citric, quinic) - up to 0.8%. Pectin substances content is 0,6- 1.3%, fat is 0.9%. Peach fruits are rich in carotene ~ 0,65-5,5 mg / 100 g, they contain 5,6-8,1 mg / 100 g of vitamin E, 22-110 mg / kg nicotinic acid. The level of maturity of fruit flesh - 0,55-0,70%. In the peach ash there were found 27 mineral elements, including potassium - 300-350, iron - 2.1 mg / 100 g.