The raspberry is a perennial with woody stems. Raspberry rhizome is woody, with numerous adventitious roots, forming a powerful ramified root system.
First year shoots are grassy, green with a bluish bloom, juicy, covered with thin, usually frequent tiny spikes. The leaves are oval, alternate, stalked, complex.
The flowers are white, about 1 cm in diameter, collected in small racemose blossom clusters, located on the tops of stems or in the leaf antrums. In central Russia raspberry blooms from June to July, sometimes until August.
The fruits are small, downy drupes usually of red color (from pink to deep burgundy), but there are varieties of yellow and black colors even (blackberrylike). The fruits appear not only on the second year shoots. In southern regions fruits appear on the first year shoots of in the middle of autumn. These shoots grew woody and become brown, aut of the axils of the leaves grow fruiting branches with flower buds. Immediately after fruiting lateral branches die, but next year new stems grew from the same root. There are everbearing raspberry varieties that are adapted to the climate conditions of Central Russia, capable to bear fruit on the first year shoots.
Significance and use:
Raspberries are grown for the fresh fruit market or used in production of jams, jellies, marmalade, juice. Raspberry wine, liqueurs are characterised by high taste qualities.
In medicine, dried fruits are used as a diaphoretic, syrup - to improve the taste of medicine mixtures.
In folk medicine, fruits and leaves are used for treatment of catarrhal diseases, flu, and as a fever reducer.
Raspberry is a bee plant. Due to the fact that the flower of raspberry is pointed down a bee extracts the nectar as if under a natural canopy and can work even in the rain. Bees get 70 kg of honey out of nectar collected from 1 ha of raspberry blossom and out of nectar collected in the 1 ha of raspberry garden the bees get 50 kg of honey. Raspberry honey contains 41.34% levulose and 33.57% glucose, it also has a pleasant smell and taste.
The fruits contain up to 11% of sugars (glucose, fructose, pentose), traces of essential oils, proteins and pectin, mucilage; Vitamins C, A, B; 1-2% organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric, salicylic, etc.), Alcohols (wine, isoamyl, phenyl), ketones; 0.3% tannins.
Seeds contain up to 22% fatty oils