The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable and is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. The onion is one of the oldest cultivated species on the globe.
In China, Iran and the Mediterranean countries, it was known 4,000 years BC. To Russia the onion came from the Danube River region at the beginning of the XII century. The onion is a perennial plant. In the first year a little cloves grows out from the seed from seed 1-2.5 cm in diameter. The next season the large bulbs are formed, which shoot in the third year a flower stalk on which the inflorescences with seeds are formed. The onion varieties are divided into several groups depending of the acridity level: acrid, half-acrid and sweet. The type of cultivation depends of the variety of the onion. Some of them are propagated from seeds, seed-grown sets, daughter-bulbs, samplings.
There are many varieties of bulb onion, the most common ones are:
Arzamas onion is mid-season; srednegnezdny with medium-sezed bulbs weighing 60-90 g. The onion has spherical shape and yellow dry scales.
Belozersky onion is mid-season variety. Bulb flat or ploskookrugloy, , sharp taste. The bulb is flattened or flattened-spherical, purple with dark red shade, sharp taste.
Bessonovsky onion is early-ripe (3-5 small bulbs weighing 35-65 g). The bulbs are flattened-spherical shaped. Dry scales are yellow from the outside and white from the inside.
Danilovsky 301 onion is mid-season, has 1-2 flattened big bulbs of dark purple color and slightly purple juicy scales. It has sharp.
Annual havsky is early-ripe with semihot taste. The bulbs are rounded or flattened, the are of yellow or yellow-brown color.
Rostov onion is early-ripe precocious, has 3-6 bulbs. Bulbs are flat, yellow with pink tinge, weighing 40-80, with hot taste.
Strigunovsky local onion is one of the most common varieties of onion. Early-ripe, hot. The bulbs are rounded, light yellow, weighing 100-120 g
Spanish onion is late-ripening, salad variety.
Lugansk onion - late-ripening, semihot.
Kaba onion- late-ripening, sweet.
Karatal onion- late-ripening, semihot.
Currently onion is one of the most important vegetable planting. The bulbs and leaves are used as a seasoning in the canning industry, to salads, as one of important ingredients in vinaigrettes, mushrooms, vegetable and meat dishes cooking, also as an appetizer or ingredients to soups and sausesas.
Most often, onion is eaten raw or fried until golden brown. Raw onion perfectly complements the sausage and meat products, cheese, cottage cheese, bread and bacon.