The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. Potato plants are herbaceous perennial that grow about 1 m high, with 4-6, sometimes 6-8 stems, the amount of which depends on the variety and size of a seed tuber.
Potato stems produce long side tillers called stolons. Modified shoots develop at the on the ends of stolons which are the productive plant part used for food.
Chemical composition and the beneficial properties of potato
The chemical composition of potatoes varies greatly depending on the variety and growing conditions, but in general the tubers contain about 75% water and 25% solids. Potato solids are carbohydrates, mainly starch (average 16%) and sugar (2%), proteins (2%), fat (0.2%), cellulose and pectin (1%), vitamins and minerals .
Starch is the main tuber nutrient, which turns into glucose in human bowel, which in turn provides energy. The starch content is one of the important characteristics of the potato. The starch amount varies between 14 and 22%. Potato is not only easily digestible food, but also is a valuable raw material for the pharmaceutical industry.